Operation Term: From 22-October to 31-October-2000
*** Date: 04-February-2001 Subject: K5K, KH6ND/KH5, T32R QSL's and SASE Postage Concerns See --> K5Ks_QSL.txt (3Kb)*** Date: Thu, 30 Nov 2000 00:45:27Z (WA1S) K5K-DXpedition Continent Statistics 2000/10/22 - 2000/10/31 Band 160 80 40 30 20 17 15 12 10 6M ALL % CW North America 709 959 2335 1952 2153 1630 2393 1839 2207 71 16248 20.1 South America 4 18 63 63 111 60 129 46 70 0 564 0.7 Europe 0 105 495 1268 2779 1532 1326 173 329 0 8007 9.9 Asia 280 435 1828 1772 1373 1457 2270 1212 1264 561 12452 15.4 Africa 1 5 13 19 23 13 13 5 6 0 98 0.1 Oceania 28 23 79 77 65 61 98 37 41 11 520 0.6 37889 100 SSB North America 1 1150 1199 0 4836 2092 4605 2088 4982 114 21067 26.1 South America 0 31 53 0 270 73 208 72 257 0 964 1.2 Europe 0 19 90 0 3271 1330 2102 509 482 0 7803 9.7 Asia 0 202 857 0 1886 1571 2593 1115 1874 230 10328 12.8 Africa 0 0 8 0 65 19 49 11 27 0 179 0.2 Oceania 0 64 102 0 327 159 292 101 205 10 1260 1.6 41601 100 RTTY North America 0 0 0 0 51 0 218 0 199 0 468 0.6 South America 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 8 0 14 0.0 Europe 0 0 0 0 178 0 81 0 0 0 259 0.3 Asia 0 0 0 0 93 0 394 0 103 0 590 0.7 Africa 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0.0 Oceania 0 0 0 0 3 0 8 0 5 0 16 0.0 1350 100 Total 1023 3011 7122 5151 17487 9997 16783 7208 12061 997 80840 100%*** Date: Wed, 15 Nov 2000 19:32:46Z (NI6T) Subject: KH6ND/KH5 QRT Mike Gibson, KH6ND has left Palmyra Atoll and returned to Honolulu. The Nature Conservancy's (TNC) acitivities on Palmyra have ceased for the winter. Given the imminent change in ownership, we do not know what operating opportunities will be available in the future.However, Mike and the Kingman Reef/Palmyra DX Group (KRPDXG) hope to be involved in future amateur activity from Palmyra During his volunteer stay on Palmyra, Mike, beyond his work commitments, tirelessly handed out more than 25,000 QSO's on 10 bands and 3 modes. (The final total may be closer to 27,000). Mike's efforts, and those of N4BQW, WB4JTT, NH6UY and KH7U were part of KRPDXG's overall efforts to assist TNC on Palmyra Atoll. The Palmyra effort was in turn an integral part of the Kingman Reef project. The Kingman Reef DXpedition concluded its operational phase on October 31, with almost 81,000 QSO's in the log. Your donation to offset the considerable expense of these operations will be appreciated. Please send donations and QSL's to K4TSJ---not to individual operators. Thanks to all for your participation and support. For the KRPDXG Garry Shapiro, NI6T Tom Harrell, N4XP *** Date: Mon, 13 Nov 2000 15:09:25Z (K6GNX) Subject: KH6ND/KH5 I spoke with Mike last night at 0700Z. He said that I had the last QSO from Palmyra and that he was packing all the ham radio stuff and was leaving today for Honolulu. He didn't ask me to make any press announcement so I guess he plans to do that when he gets back to Hawaii. He didn't know the status of his staying until yesterday. He did make 9 RTTY QSO's yesterday - the last few lucky guys got in the log on RTTY. *** Date: Sat, 11-Nov-2000 23:55:06Z (NI6T) Subject: K5K Log Lookup QSO lookup for the K5K DXpedition is now available on the KR2000 DXpedition website at http://www.qsl.net/krpdxg/krlog.html This is the only site for log lookups. The test site has been deactivated. As is the custom with log lookups, only the band and mode are displayed at our site. The following message is posted at that address: If your qso is NOT in the log or if there is a mistake on the band/mode just send a note with your qsl. The manager will be happy to manually check the logs for any discrepancies Log lookup is an indicator---not an absolute authority on your QSO's. A dropped or added dit or a mistyped character can mean a missed QSO. We are aware that there are time, band and mode mistakes in the DXpedition log, and we are working diligently to correct these. Most are due to technical problems at the operating positions; some undoubtedly can be attributed to operator sleep deprivation and other human factors. Our QSL managers will work hard to ensure that every valid QSO for which a QSL is requested will be confirmed. Be patient--we want happy DXers. A word about dupes. A valid QSO is one which is considered so by both operators. If another attempt was required by a caller to achieve that degree of confidence, so be it. We do not believe that dupes significantly impacted anyone's ability to obtain a CW or SSB QSO. However, it is my personal opinion that the limited RTTY operation and the relatively low QSO rates inherent in RTTY justified my request that operators not seek a second band QSO on that mode (only), in order to maximize the number of successful RTTY callers. (Again, a second call to achieve a solid QSO is always OK). I am grateful to those RTTY operators who honored my request and QRXed after their first QSO, in the true spirit of amateur radio. 73, Garry Shapiro, NI6T - Co-leader, KR2000 *** Date: Fri, 10-Nov-2000 18:33:56Z (NI6T) Subject: KR2000 News Release, 10 November 2000 Kingman Reef Summary, 10 November 2000 The operational phase of the KR2000 DXpedition to Kingman Reef is now complete; all operators are home. After almost a week's travel from Honolulu by air and sea, the team arrived at Kingman Reef via Christmas Island and Palmyra Atoll aboard the MV Machias on 20 October and commenced construction on the islet. Bad weather delayed completion of this phase. However, at full operational status, 15 people, 7 stations (160-6m), 6 5kW generators and 12 antennas coexisted on a half-acre of coral and shell debris. The team erected nine separate shelter structures, including watermaking and sanitary facilities. Appropriately, the first QSO was with Mike, N9NS at 0320Z on 22 October. Mike co-led the 1993 Kingman Reef DXpedition. The last QSO was logged at 1848Z on 31 October and we departed the reef on the same day. We returned to Honolulu by air from Christmas Island on 5 November. The team logged 80,841 QSO's--good for third place among all DXpeditions, all-time. The total is also the highest for any pure boat-and-tent DXpedition. CW and SSB QSO totals were essentially equal. A primary goal was to provide Kingman Reef QSO's to Europe. That goal was achieved: Europe accounted for almost 16,000 QSO's---20% of the total. Another primary goal was the first six meter operation ever from this counter. 899 QSO's were logged on that band. 936 QSO's were logged on 160 meters, and 1322 QSO's on RTTY. In all, the team operated in 22 band-modes. We also consider the more than 25,000 QSO's logged so far by KH6ND/KH5 from Palmyra Atoll to be part of our total effort, as well as approximately 1000 QSO's logged from T32R on Christmas Island. All QSL's go to K4TSJ. The DXpedition website at http://www.qsl.net/krpdxg is currently adding images of the DXpedition. Please visit the site often to share the experience of the DXpedition team, and to note the sponsors who helped make this expedition possible.. On-line log checking will be available shortly. For the Kingman Reef/Palmyra DX Group Garry Shapiro, NI6T - Tom Harrell, N4XP *** Date: Mon, 06 Nov 2000 22:07:23Z (N1DG) Subject: K5K wrapup Well the team is back in Hawaii and should be reaching their homes in the next day or so. I will have the logs in a few days and will announce when they are posted to the web site. I did get some preliminary numbers from Tom today. Total QSOs around 80,600. Some highlights: Europe: 20% (15,827) CW: 49.0% 160: 9,407 Q (?? de ja3aaw) SSB: 49.4% 6M: 899 Q RTTY: 1.6% RTTY: 1,333 Q Full numbers will be out later this week. (From NI6T's e-mail on 10/Nov/2000, T/L= 80,841 QSOs, 160M: 936, RTTY: 1322) *** Date: Sat, 05 Nov-2000 02:43:49Z (K6GNX) Subject: update 6:30PM West Coast 04-NOV I just spoke with Tom and there are relaxing at the Captain Cook Hotel on Christmas Island and on the air on 21310. He said that they were met by customs at about 10AM and were off the boat by 11AM. Everything worked out well with customs and immigration.. I'll send another update after I talk with them at 8PM West Coast time in an hour and a half. The weather is calmer now than it has been in two weeks. From DX-Summit Cluster: (JA3AAW) WV4X 21310.0 T32R Ann On Christmas Island 0110 05-Nov K6GXO 21310.0 T32R 0305 05-Nov KI4RO 18145.0 T32R simplex 0323 05-Nov JI0DGG 14195.0 T32R 0522 05-Nov K6GNX 3795.0 T32R CW] 0557 05-Nov *** Date: Fri, 04 Nov-2000 06:26:40Z (K6GNX) I just spoke with Tom, Kimo, Bob, and Garry. They are about 5 hours away from Christmas Island. The seas have subsided and the going is more pleasant now. They will clear customs in the morning and then go the the Captain Cook Hotel. They will probably operate as T32R for a while. They will fly to Honolulu the next day (Sunday) and the plane should arrive around 12:30 in Honolulu, just after lunch. Interestingly they arrive Christmas Island on a Sunday then fly the NEXT day to Honolulu and arrive on a Sunday!. Christmas Island is on the West side of the Internaltional dateline because the line loops around it. Everybody is fine. *** Date: Thu, 03-Nov-2000 02:52:47z (K6GNX) Subject: update Thursday evening 6:30 West Coast I just spoke with Tom and Ned aboard the Machias. They put back up a 20 meter dipole in the rigging of the ship. They were using the maritime HF vertical but it broke and so they have put the ham radio antenna back up. Everyone is fine. About half the team is below deck hanging in there waiting to get back on solid ground. They have about 36 hours to go. The waves are about 8 feet and the computer predictions said about 9 feet so it agrees well. The captain and his crew is having no problem with the motion of the ship and the roughness is not at all dangerous as I said before. The continuous rocking is tiring for some. They are going almost directly into the wind which will be decreasing as they approach the end of the trip. They have more time than I thought so there is no problem catching the airplane and will stay overnight at the Captain Cook Hotel one night before boarding the plane. The only worry was that they would be able to clear customs on a Sunday but that has been taken care of. I will be speaking to them in one hour (8PM on the West Coast). *** Date: Thu, 02-Nov-2000 23:59:50z (K6GNX) Subject: update Tuesday afternoon in Nevada I just talked to Mike KH6ND on Palmyra who talked to Tom on the Machias last night and he said that they are fine but the seas are rough and it is a tiring ride. They left Mike off at Palmyra about 8 hours after they left Kingman Reef. My weather predictions show about 9 foot seas and Mike said that Tom said that they are "enduring" the trip. There is no danger but I think that it isn't much fun. The ship can be it much heavier seas without any danger. I remember Garry saying when the wind came up the first day on the reef, and Garry thought that this was a pretty good wind, that the captain said that "you should see it when it really blows". The HF marine radio antenna broke yesterday and the little ham radio dipole strung in the rigging also fell down. They will hopefully fix the ham radio antenna today and this evening when I talk to them I will get a better prediction of when they will arrive at Christmas Island. As soon as I talk with them I will send out another update. They sent the telephone numbers of the customs office and someone who will drive them to the airplane to Mike and Walt in Hawaii. Walt emailed me and I made phone calls to Christmas Island getting a promise from the head of custons that he will send a man even in the middle of the night so that they can make their connections at the airport. Part of the excitement in meeting the plane is that the international date line loops 20 degrees east around Christmas Island so that our Saturday morning is their Sunday morning. *** Subject: update 06:00Z 31-0ct (K6GNX) I just talked to someone on 10MHz CW and he said that all was OK and that they were very busy trying to beat another dxpeditions QSO total. Sounds like they are trying to do the best they possibly can before they shut down in about 10 hours. They may be pretty busy tomorrow loading the boat. *** Date: Mon, 31-Oct-2000 00:40:54Z (N1DG) Subject: Last call for K5K K5K will stay on the air until 16:00 UTC 31 October. In a few hours (at their sunset, 04:00 UTC) they will take down the 17, 12 and 10 meter antennas. The last 12 hours or so they will operate 15, 20, 40 and 80 (both modes on each band). 4 stations will be operational during their night. Pileups are very thin and right now they are CQ-ing on 12 and 15 with few takers. 73 Don N1DG *** Subject: update 05:00Z 30-Oct (K6GNX) I just talked to Garry and Kimo and everyone is fine. They now have 70,000+ QSO's which puts them in the all time top 10 dxpeditions. It was hot today and for a while the lagoon looked like a lake. Several went floating out in the water. The smooth water made loading the boat much easier. There was a very high tide last night but there was no spray over the reef this time. They have already loaded part of the equipment so that there will be less to do tomorrow. They will pull the plug tomorrow about noon local time there and leave Tuesday morning. While they are sailing to Christmas Island they will be on the air. // snip // They will stop in Palmyra to let off Mike and then leave immediately for Christmas Island. At Christmas Island they will be on the air for a short time as T32R before catching the plane to Hawaii. *** Date: Sun, 30-Oct-2000 02:24:23z (N1DG) Subject: K5K QRT Schedule I just talked to Tom, N4XP. They have moved the excess generators to the boat, taken down the Battle Creek Special (no more 160), and dismantled one of the stations. 80 Meter Operation will take place tomorrow with the other 80 mtr vertical. They will operate all day tomorrow 30 October with 4 stations; as the day progresses some more teardown will take place and some of the crew will sleep on the boat tomorrow night. They expect to QRT Tuesday morning local time (-11 Hours UTC) and leave the Reef by mid afternoon. *** Subject: K5K update 07:00Z 28-Oct (K6GNX) Press release Garry said that they have worked on the 80 antenna and can operate on 160 and 80 at the same time until they take down the antennas. Propagation on 20 during the day was dead on the 28th. The team handed out 1200 40 SSB Q's to Europe last night. Right now they are smoking at 300+ an hour to Europe on 20 CW. Also they are getting RTTY on 15 to Europe. They will concentrate on CW during the contest but if one of the bands get slow on CW they will switch to SSB to hand out mults. This will be only if CW drys up on some band. They plan to operate until Monday and then tear down. They will leave one station operating until everything else is down and then take the last station down. *** Subject: update 06:30Z 28-OCT (K6GNX) Dear Everyone, Talked to Alan and Garry. Everyone is fine. They are going to try to keep operating until the last possible minute to get as many people in the log books as they can. They are planning to keep operating until Monday and leave Tuesday which will give them about 1 day cushion to get back to Christmas Island on time. *** Date: Thu, 26 Oct 2000 06:35:37z (K6GNX) Subject: press release The team was up to 44,000 Q's as of 0000Z last. 20% are EU. 0600-0900Z Tomorrow will be for 15 meter RTTY with Europe. The team strongly requests only one RTTY QSO - if you get them on one band - then don't work them again on another band on RTTY to give as many as possible a chance. The general plan is to concentrate more on SSB before the contest and then be on CW during the contest. The one A3 tribander was taken down as it was not as good as the Force 12 vertical arrays. The 80 meter inverted L did not perform well so they are time sharing between 160 and 80 on the Battlecreek Special. They will be on 14245 KHz tomorrow for generals. *** Subject: [dx-list] K5K update 07:00Z 28-Oct Press release Garry said that they have worked on the 80 antenna and can operate on 160 and 80 at the same time until they take down the antennas. Propagation on 20 during the day was dead on the 28th. The team handed out 1200 40 SSB Q's to Europe last night. Right now they are smoking at 300+ an hour to Europe on 20 CW. Also they are getting RTTY on 15 to Europe. They will concentrate on CW during the contest but if one of the bands get slow on CW they will switch to SSB to hand out mults. This will be only if CW drys up on some band. They plan to operate until Monday and then tear down. They will leave one station operating until everything else is down and then take the last station down. *** Date: Thu, 26-Oct 21:22:39z (K6GNX) Subject: Re: K5K on RTTY & 160M I think that they will be only one band at a time on RTTY. Garry said that the 160 run to JA pretty well cleaned out the pileup. I will mention JA RTTY this evening. *** Date: 26-Oct 14:20z (JA3AAW) I talked to Katsu JH7OHF/a member of K5K: "RTTY from about 20:20z 25-Oct and will be QRV everyday on 10/15/20M and operaters will be NI6T and AA7A". *** Subject: update 05:30Z 26-OCT (K6GNX) I just spoke with Garry and Ned. Everyone is fine and taking turns on the radios and sleeping along with fixing the antennas. The wind continues to be strong and variable. They get surf from different directions at the same time. They have made 35,000 contacts so far. Garry sounded relaxed and like he was having fun. I think that things are settling down. They fixed the 80 meter antenna and it is working much better. The weather will continue to be windy but it will be gradually decreasing over the next 5 days. This will make loading the ship back up easier. Still no decision on operating the CQWW contest but I suspect that because they were late getting there, any contesting will be a very small effort. *** Answer to JA3AAW's question about same time operations on 14 RTTY & CW: Date: Wed, 25-Oct-2000 08:28:44z (K6GNX) The RTTY will have it's own antenna and should be able to operate independently from CW or SSB. This is the goal. I can't confirm until tomorrow that they have been on RTTY but it seems possible since Garry was trying to get it working but was having trouble. Perhaps he was on trying it out. *** Subject: update 25-OCT-0630Z (K6GNX) I just spoke with Tom and he said that the wind and high tide sometimes brings the water up to the tents. Everyone is on the reef all the time. There are only 3 trips a day to the ship at anchor because the waves make it hard to get back and forth. Some of the generators have stopped working and they are fixing them even though it is quite involved. There are many problems and the team is fixing them one by one. They put up a 3rd sleeping tent that is open on two sides so that several cots can be sheltered from the wind. Some of the team have been sleeping on the sand but when the water comes all the way up to the crown they have to scramble to the tents. Hams from all over the world have been sending emails complimenting the team on their operating ability and their efforts to get everyone "into the logs". The winds will gradually subside over the next 4 days and there are no cyclonic storms anywhere near by. That's all for now. The messages from yesterday were delivered. Cheers DRBILL K6GNX *** Answer to JA3AAW's asking(25-OCT): I asked about the contest but they still haven't decided whether they will work the CQ DX WW Phone Contest. (K6GNX) *** Subject: update from K5K 0500Z 24-OCT-2000 (K6GNX) press release The team has put up all antennas and plans to work 160/80/40 USA until West Coast sunrise. Then they will work JA, and finally near K5K sunrise EU. K5K was on 80 CW last night on the 160 antenna but not the day before. There are some adjacent band problems 17/15 and 80/40 which were solved today. Last night there was coax problems with the 160 antenna and they had to stop as the terminator crossed the Rockies. Tonight they will be on all night. RTTY should start tomorrow but by the next day for sure. They are planning a separate RTTY Yagi so that the RTTY op can operate independently. There are 5 positions operating now and they may add a 6th. The 30 meter antenna is being tuned now so expect 30 soon. The pilot thanks all the gentlemen who stood by on 15 SSB today for support traffic. DRBILL K6GNX *** Date: Mon, 23 Oct 2000 07:46:52 -0700 (K6GNX) Garry NI6T said before he left that they had to be back on Christmas Island on the 4th. It takes 3 days to go from Kingman to Christmas. Therefore they must quit on the 30th or 31st. *** From JA's [DXML] Mailing List firstname.lastname@example.org: (Date: 0530z 23-Oct-2000) JF5NTT said who talked to Katsu/a member of K5K and he said "We did set up ALL antennas today". (JA3AAW) JA and UA0 stations worked K5K on 3503 CW around 14:30z 22-Oct. It was a PIRATE. (JA3AAW) *** Subject: update 0400Z 23 OCT (K6GNX) I just talked with Garry and told him that while the winds were strong, they were actually part of a small storm not a big one. He said that the Captain said "you should see it when it really blows". This confirms what I'm seeing on the weather predictions, a small storm and they are getting the southern most edges of it. Things will slack off in 1-2 days wind wise. Everyone has had a chance to operate by now. They have made 5300 Q's in the first day. They have made many EU Q's but I didn't get the EU subtotal. They have reached zone 14,15,16, and 20 but western zone 14 and Mediterranean will need more attention. The 160 antenna is up and they will be on tonight. Garry and Alan will be operating. The 80 meter antenna and 30 meter antennas will go up tomorrow and then they will be all up. They lost one amp, an AL-80 and unfortunately even Alan could not fix it. The plate xfmr is toast. So, they will be barefoot on 30 and 10. The fifth rig was just put on the air as I spoke with Garry. There was a pirate on 80 and that has been confirmed because the 80 antenna won't go up until tomorrow. Almost the instant they got the 6 meter antenna up there was an opening and they worked 70 stations. The bad news is that both 6 meter amps have quit and so they will be barefoot with 100 watts on 6 meters. *** Date: Sun, 22 Oct 2000 22:43:19z (K6GNX) I just talked to Katsu, He said that it is still windy but not a problem now. They just put up the 6 meter antenna. The low band antennas are not up yet, so no low band operation tonight. *** Date: Sat, 21 Oct 2000 03:38z (K6GNX) Dear Yosi, Dave and Klaus, Ned said that they would be on 40, 20, 17, 15M tonight (local time). Cheers DRBILL K6GNX *** Subject: update 0200Z 22 oct (K6GNX) Don just posted this. It is windy but the are no big storms nearby. Cheers DRBILL K6GNX Gale force winds and heavy rain have prevented the team from getting the antennas up for the past 24 hours. In the past hour the winds have subsided and all hands are feverishly working on the reef to get the antennas up. They hope to be QRV before their sunset which is about 04:00 UTC. I'll post the news when the come up. 73 and GL Don N1DG *** Date: 2000/10/22 00:05z (JA3AAW) Regular e-mail didn't reach here this morning from chief-pilot Bill K6GNX or web-master Don N1DG. I guess it's been delayed to start operations from Kingman Reef because of bad weather there. So stand by some more. *** Date: 2000/10/21 05:15z (K6GNX) The team members just returned to the boat to eat dinner. They worked all day and everything is on the Reef now. They will put up the antennas in the morning and be on the air by the afternoon. 6 of the members are sleeping on the Reef in the tents that were put up. There is a little wind which makes tying things down a challenge. They are getting the water maker and other life support facilities all up before they do the antennas and get on the air. My next update will be tomorrow afternoon late as I am in class. *** Date: 2000/10/20, 21:13z (K6GNX) I just spoke with Garry NI6T on the Machias and he said they dropped anchor at 1900Z. The exposed Reef is 700 feet by 40 feet which is plenty, they are very happy as there was some rumor that the exposed area might be less. Two of the operators are now on shore and they are preparing the second Zodiac now. They do not expect to have all the antennas up before dark and they are discussing whether or not to try to get on the air tonight. We will see. *** Date: 2000/10/20 (JA3AAW) When the ship stopped by Palmyra, they did QRV on 21295 SSB from about 22:00z Oct-19 until 01:40z Oct-20. JH7OHF/, AA7A/, WA1S/, K5AB/, KO4RR/, N4XP/, NP2KY/KH5 etc. *** Date: 2000/10/20 The Machias reached Palmyra early today(19-Oct) local time. They stopped to pick up Mike, KH6ND, and some equipment that was left from visits by various team members earlier this year. While there they also had time for some limited operating before leaving at 03:00 UTC for the last leg to Kingman. They will arrive there during the night and will be ready to make landing at first light of day. Expect them to be qrv sometime tomorrow afternoon their time. All stations will be fully assembled before hitting the air. *** Date: 2000/10/20 Final Summary of KH6ND/KH5 QSOs. Click here -> KH6ND_KH5_summary.txt 2Kb *** Date: 2000/10/19 The team departed yesterday afternoon (17 October) aboard the Machias for the 3 day voyage to Palmyra to pick up Mike, KH6ND, and then on to Kingman. Estimated QRV is still around the 20th of October. They are maritime mobile on 14.195. *** Date: 2000/10/18 They have been underway and the seas are calm. They expect to reach Palmyra midday Thursday and the Kingman reef late Thursday night. *** Date: 2000/10/17 Machias arrived at London habor after expected 7days voyage. The ship will depart Christmas Island around noon local time. And Machias trip is about 3 days sailing via Palmyra Atoll picking up Mike KH6ND/KH5. Operation starting date: approximately 20th-October. *** Date: 2000/10/17 (JA3AAW) T32R by the team did QRV for a short time on 21 CW and 14 SSB etc. QSL via K4TSJ. *** Date: 2000/10/15 All 14 members (except KH6ND)) arrived on Christmas island safely. They will wait about one day for the arrival of the sailing ship Machias. *** Date: 2000/10/10 The motor schooner Machias finally sailed from Honolulu and the team will be met by the ship, at London harbor, Christmas island, for the voyage to Kingman Reef.